Global Warming Will Cost Cities Twice As Much Thanks To ‘Heat Islands’

Global Warming Will Cost Cities Twice As Much Thanks To ‘Heat Islands’

Global Warming Will Cost Cities Twice As Much Thanks To ‘Heat Islands’

It is expected that global warming will have a major impact on the economy, and a new study suggests that cities will be the most difficult.

The study published Monday in the journal Nature Climate Change showed that the total economic costs of climate change for cities could be 2.6 times higher because of an effect researchers call the “urban heat island.”

The researchers examined 1692 cities and found that by the year 2100, they could be up to 8 degrees C warmer. Nearly 5 degrees would be due to global warming, but the rest comes from the heat island effect, which occurs when parks and lakes are replaced by concrete and asphalt.

Hot city

By 2050, cities could see temperatures rise two degrees from the islands of heat. This could mean more air pollution, poor water and poor health.

“Any hard-won victory over climate change in the world could be destroyed by the effects of uncontrolled urban heat islands,” Richard SJ Tol of the University of Sussex said in a statement.

The study found that the median city loses between 1.4% and 1.7% of GDP in 2050 and between 2.3 and 5.6% in 2100, according to the amount of heat that heats during this period. The poorest city could have losses of up to almost 11 percent of its GDP.

Toronto Fontaine

The researchers examined various policies that could mitigate the economic impact of global warming, such as planting more trees.

They found that the cheapest measure would be to install fresh ceilings and floors that absorb less heat and less reflected in the surrounding environment. The study found that modifying 20 percent of a city’s roofs and half of its sidewalks could save 12 times the cost of installation and maintenance and reduce the air temperature by 0.8 degrees.

Saturns moon Enceladus may have tipped over: study

Saturns moon Enceladus may have tipped over: study

Saturns moon Enceladus may have tipped over: study

New York, May 31 (PTI) Saturns icy, oceanic moon Enceladus may have been tilted in the distant past, probably due to a collision with a smaller body such as an asteroid, according to new data from the spacecraft Cassini of NASA.
The researchers found that the axis of rotation of the moons – the line through the north and south poles – has reoriented.
By examining the characteristics of the moons, the team showed that Elceladus seems to have been moved away from its original axis by about 55 degrees – more than half the way to the rolling completely on its side.
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“We have found a chain of weak areas or ponds that trace a belt across the surface of the moons which we believe are the fossil remains of a previous and previous equator and poles,” said Radwan Tajeddine, a team Cassini imagery associated with Cornell University in the United States.
The area surrounding the ice moons of the current South Pole is a geologically active area where long, linear fractures, called stem bands, intersect across the surface.
Researchers speculate that an asteroid may have struck the region in the past when it was closer to the equator.
“It is unlikely that the geological activity in this terrain was initiated by internal processes,” said Tajeddine.
“We believe that, in order to lead such a large reorientation of the moon, it is possible that an impact is behind the formation of this abnormal terrain,” he said.
In 2005, Cassini discovered that jets of water vapor and ice particles sprayed tiger strip fractures – evidence that an underground ocean drains directly into space beneath the active south polar terrain.
Whether it is an impact or another process, the researchers stated that the disturbance and creation of the tiger strip terrain resulted in a redistribution of the Enceladus mass, making the rotation of the moons unstable And stifling.
The rotation would have finally stabilized, probably after more than a million years.
By the time the rotation has taken place, the north-south axis would have reoriented to cross different points of the surface – a mechanism called “true polar wandering”.
The idea of polar wandering helps explain why the North and South poles of modern Enceladus seem quite different.
The south is active and geologically young, while the north is covered with craters and looks much older.
The original poles of the moons would have looked more like the event that prompted Enceladus to move and relocate the disturbed terrain of the tiger strip in the polar south region of the moons …….

Butterfly Craters on Mars, Mercury, Moon Reveal Similarities and Differences

Butterfly Craters on Mars, Mercury, Moon Reveal Similarities and Differences

Butterfly Craters on Mars, Mercury, Moon Reveal Similarities and Differences

Unusual butterfly-shaped craters on Mars, Mercury and the Moon can give an overview of the three worlds surfaces, and even suggest the presence of a third window that could previously orbiting the red planet, new research shows.

Research comparing these butterfly features on the three objects in the solar system helps identify the similarities and differences of the body and to help scientists understand the conditions in the world where materials are crushed and insect models created.

“The combination of these two [features] gives us what looks like butterfly wings,” said Robert Herrick of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, at Space.com. Herrick has used up-to-date observations of Mars, Mercury and the Moon to make a more complete study of objects striking surfaces at low angles, forming butterflies and other unusual shapes. He presented his findings to the Conference of Lunar and Planetary Sciences in The Woodlands, Texas, in March.

NASA’s Viking orbiter collected images of crater butterflies on Mars in the 1970s while Apolllo missions have captured evidence of similar craters on the Moon in the 1960s and 1970s. The elongated body cratered craters did reveal low angles of batting, Which crashed on the ground at relatively low speeds. Slowly, as they rushed into the area, they blew the material into the air.

The ejection pattern in this Mars butterfly crater formed as blowing material created two “forbidden zones” ahead and behind the crater in which nothing returned to the surface. Resultant debris left a butterfly model.
The ejection pattern in this Mars butterfly crater formed as blowing material created two “forbidden zones” ahead and behind the crater in which nothing returned to the surface. Resultant debris left a butterfly model.
Credit: NASA / JPL-Caltech / ASU
But debris does not fall evenly around the site. Small footprint impacts and deceleration create “forbidden zones” or wedge-shaped regions through and beyond the object without introducing ejected material. While ejected greatly fall from the sides, the floor in front and behind the impactor remains free of debris. The result is the unusual shape of butterflies.

While laboratory experiments have recreated most forms of butterflies observed in nature with sufficient attention, Herrick said they are not perfect replicas. “We’re still working to understand what’s going on,” he said. Replication defects allowed in the lab is still a challenge, which is suspicious hardware Herrick-related surface, he said.

Material blown into the air by impact can melt or vaporize quickly, which affects how it falls on the ground. Herrick suggested that the presence of ice below the surface of Mars could affect how the materials fall to the surface around elongated craters. Detailed crater comments and their features can help resolve some of the mysteries surrounding them, he said.

During the decades since NASA’s Apollo and Viking missions, space agencies have sent out other missions to visit the three rocky worlds. Herrick looked at mercury images of NASA’s MESSENGER spacecraft as well as more detailed images of various missions to the Moon and Mars to extract a more complete list of the population of unusual craters. He compared some of the best preserved craters in them to see how the features differ in all three worlds.

Due to active erosion from wind and water (in the past) on Mars, more unusual craters on Mars degrade, Herrick said. However, because Mercury and the Moon have essentially no atmosphere, craters tend to remain longer virgins, he said. At the same time, Mars is the largest of the three bodies, and this affects the amount of gravitationally drawn to the surface of the material. Consequently, it has a larger population of elongated craters.

South Korea’s Moon Orders Probe After Missile Shield Surprise

South Korea’s Moon Orders Probe After Missile Shield Surprise

South Korea’s Moon Orders Probe After Missile Shield Surprise

South Korea’s new president, Moon Jae-in, has ordered an investigation into how the final components of a controversial strain against US missiles have come to the country without his knowledge.

The president launched the probe after learning that a complete set of six launchers was in South Korea’s territory, moon spokesman Yoon Young-chan told a news conference on Tuesday. Earlier statements from the Defense Ministry – including a conference given to the president last week – have confirmed the deployment of only two launchers for the area’s high altitude defense system, or THAAD.

“Luna looked very shocking” and asked Defense Minister Han Min-koo to confirm that the four pitchers who were already in the country told Yoon reporters. How they were made, who made the decision and why the information kept citizens and the new government were the subjects to be studied, he said.

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Moon’s predecessor, Park Geun-hye, approved the deployment of THAAD, which it said was necessary to protect South Korea against the growth of North Korean nuclear and missile threats. During her election campaign, Luna criticized the anti-democratic decision and called for a parliamentary review and debate on the issue. He also tried to understand China, which opposes the deployment, alleging security reasons.

The first two mobile launchers arrived in South Korea in March and have deployed in Seongju County, southeast of Seoul. A single unit of THAAD comprises six mobile launchers and 48 interceptor missiles, as well as ground and radar control systems, according to the Ministry of Defense website.