Butterfly Craters on Mars, Mercury, Moon Reveal Similarities and Differences

Butterfly Craters on Mars, Mercury, Moon Reveal Similarities and Differences

Butterfly Craters on Mars, Mercury, Moon Reveal Similarities and Differences

Unusual butterfly-shaped craters on Mars, Mercury and the Moon can give an overview of the three worlds surfaces, and even suggest the presence of a third window that could previously orbiting the red planet, new research shows.

Research comparing these butterfly features on the three objects in the solar system helps identify the similarities and differences of the body and to help scientists understand the conditions in the world where materials are crushed and insect models created.

“The combination of these two [features] gives us what looks like butterfly wings,” said Robert Herrick of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, at Space.com. Herrick has used up-to-date observations of Mars, Mercury and the Moon to make a more complete study of objects striking surfaces at low angles, forming butterflies and other unusual shapes. He presented his findings to the Conference of Lunar and Planetary Sciences in The Woodlands, Texas, in March.

NASA’s Viking orbiter collected images of crater butterflies on Mars in the 1970s while Apolllo missions have captured evidence of similar craters on the Moon in the 1960s and 1970s. The elongated body cratered craters did reveal low angles of batting, Which crashed on the ground at relatively low speeds. Slowly, as they rushed into the area, they blew the material into the air.

The ejection pattern in this Mars butterfly crater formed as blowing material created two “forbidden zones” ahead and behind the crater in which nothing returned to the surface. Resultant debris left a butterfly model.
The ejection pattern in this Mars butterfly crater formed as blowing material created two “forbidden zones” ahead and behind the crater in which nothing returned to the surface. Resultant debris left a butterfly model.
Credit: NASA / JPL-Caltech / ASU
But debris does not fall evenly around the site. Small footprint impacts and deceleration create “forbidden zones” or wedge-shaped regions through and beyond the object without introducing ejected material. While ejected greatly fall from the sides, the floor in front and behind the impactor remains free of debris. The result is the unusual shape of butterflies.

While laboratory experiments have recreated most forms of butterflies observed in nature with sufficient attention, Herrick said they are not perfect replicas. “We’re still working to understand what’s going on,” he said. Replication defects allowed in the lab is still a challenge, which is suspicious hardware Herrick-related surface, he said.

Material blown into the air by impact can melt or vaporize quickly, which affects how it falls on the ground. Herrick suggested that the presence of ice below the surface of Mars could affect how the materials fall to the surface around elongated craters. Detailed crater comments and their features can help resolve some of the mysteries surrounding them, he said.

During the decades since NASA’s Apollo and Viking missions, space agencies have sent out other missions to visit the three rocky worlds. Herrick looked at mercury images of NASA’s MESSENGER spacecraft as well as more detailed images of various missions to the Moon and Mars to extract a more complete list of the population of unusual craters. He compared some of the best preserved craters in them to see how the features differ in all three worlds.

Due to active erosion from wind and water (in the past) on Mars, more unusual craters on Mars degrade, Herrick said. However, because Mercury and the Moon have essentially no atmosphere, craters tend to remain longer virgins, he said. At the same time, Mars is the largest of the three bodies, and this affects the amount of gravitationally drawn to the surface of the material. Consequently, it has a larger population of elongated craters.

From the moon to Kansas to Sotheby’s: a $2 million bag?

From the moon to Kansas to Sotheby’s: a $2 million bag?

From the moon to Kansas to Sotheby’s: a $2 million bag?

This is the Rembrandt hanging on a garage sale, shares of Apple Inc. found in the grandmother’s office.

What about some ideas of moon dust? The real trick. Vintage Apollo 11. Neil Armstrong, 1969.

What could have been a monumental opportunity for the man who transformed a planetarium in Hutchinson, Kansas., Into a world-class museum space (and then served two years of federal time to sell some of his artifacts), or himself Cosmosphere Center and Space, instead belongs to a rock-love lawyer who got lucky with a very neglected online auction for $ 995.

Although NASA never wanted lunar rocks or dust from the surface of the moon exchanged in the open market, the memory space botched stories that a generation ago, have somehow lost a price.

Later, the lawyer fought against the sacking of the person from NASA confirmed with pieces of real moon.

This summer, the sales agency with the golden will auction of Sotheby’s “Lunar Samples Return Bag” – an Apollo 11 case still inlays dust from the moon and rocks in its fabric – for the offering. The auction house plans to go north of $ 2 million for Moonshot relic.

The first lunar walker Armstrong tucked the briefcase into a pocket of his spacesuit after taking samples of the surface after his “leap for humanity”.

The scientists back on their home planet would study the dust had been hidden. However, the agency could land a man on the moon could not keep something that was used during the trip.

The zipper bag would eventually be discarded with other Apollo detritus, Cosmosphere direction the basement and would land in its former garage director.

When the museum manager, Max Ary was later convicted of selling Cosmosphere goods and carrying the product, most of his memorable items were captured, stored for a decade and then sold to pay his fines and restitution to the Cosmosphere .

Two years ago, the US Marshals Service put the bag in the auction with a launch key for a Soviet Soyuz T-14 spacecraft and a headrest for an Apollo command module. Nancy Lee Carlson, a real estate lawyer Inverness, Ill., The ripped on a whim.

She was the only bidder, probably because there was no indication that this was a dust from the moon or flew the first mission to touch the satellite of the original inhabited Earth.

Only after she was sent to Johnson Space Center in Houston to authenticate the actual value of the object is certified. After NASA confirmed that the Apollo 11 wine bag, he refused to return the wallet to Carlson. NASA has argued that he had never intended to give the artifact, and the space agency did not let go.

So he went on. In December, the J. Thomas Marten in Wichita district judge ruled that although the commission service sale was a mistake, the government had no power to reverse the purchase. It was hers.

In February, Carlson took security guards in Houston to remove the bag and held the other Sotheby auction – this one with the true value of the transparent pouch.

South Korea’s Moon Orders Probe After Missile Shield Surprise

South Korea’s Moon Orders Probe After Missile Shield Surprise

South Korea’s Moon Orders Probe After Missile Shield Surprise

South Korea’s new president, Moon Jae-in, has ordered an investigation into how the final components of a controversial strain against US missiles have come to the country without his knowledge.

The president launched the probe after learning that a complete set of six launchers was in South Korea’s territory, moon spokesman Yoon Young-chan told a news conference on Tuesday. Earlier statements from the Defense Ministry – including a conference given to the president last week – have confirmed the deployment of only two launchers for the area’s high altitude defense system, or THAAD.

“Luna looked very shocking” and asked Defense Minister Han Min-koo to confirm that the four pitchers who were already in the country told Yoon reporters. How they were made, who made the decision and why the information kept citizens and the new government were the subjects to be studied, he said.

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Moon’s predecessor, Park Geun-hye, approved the deployment of THAAD, which it said was necessary to protect South Korea against the growth of North Korean nuclear and missile threats. During her election campaign, Luna criticized the anti-democratic decision and called for a parliamentary review and debate on the issue. He also tried to understand China, which opposes the deployment, alleging security reasons.

The first two mobile launchers arrived in South Korea in March and have deployed in Seongju County, southeast of Seoul. A single unit of THAAD comprises six mobile launchers and 48 interceptor missiles, as well as ground and radar control systems, according to the Ministry of Defense website.